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Multiple scattering effects are commonly ignored in the detection and estimation of scatterers in signal processing research, because the energy of the first-order scattering is much larger than that of higher-order components. Although multiple scattering can significantly increase the estimation precision of point scatterers, it does not always lead to an improvement. Identifying conditions under which multiple scattering is beneficial or detrimental to estimation in a general setup is still an open problem.


Finding the position of a target based on measurements from an array of spatially separated sensors has been an important problem in radar, sonar, global positioning system, mobile communications, multimedia and wireless sensor networks. Time-of-arrival (TOA), time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA), received signal strength (RSS) and direction-of-arrival (DOA) of the emitted signal are commonly used measurements for source localization. Basically, TOAs, TDOAs and RSSs provide the distance information between the source and sensors while DOAs are the source bearings relative to the receivers.