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Quaternion Fourier transforms (QFT) provide a powerful tool for the analysis of signals obtained from vector probes. Acoustic particle velocity is one such signal which can be measured with specially designed microphone arrays. This paper presents a time-frequency source separation method based on the short-time quaternion Fourier transform of acoustic particle velocity signals and the agglomerative k-plane clustering of the vector part of the resulting representation. Two example cases, one with a single and one with two interfering sources are presented.


With the strong growth of the mobile devices and emerging virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) applications, headsets are becoming more and more preferable in personal listening due to its convenience and portability. Assistive listening (AL) devices like hearing aids have seen much advancement. Creating a natural and authentic listening experience is the common objective of these VR, AR, and AL applications. In this tutorial, we will present state-of-the-art audio and acoustic signal processing techniques to enhance the sound reproduction in headsets and hearing aids.


With the strong growth of assistive and personal listening devices, natural sound rendering over headphones is becoming a necessity for prolonged listening in multimedia and virtual reality applications. The aim of natural sound rendering is to naturally recreate the sound scenes with the spatial and timbral quality as natural as possible, so as to achieve a truly immersive listening experience. However, rendering natural sound over headphones encounters many challenges. This tutorial article presents signal processing techniques to tackle these challenges to assist human listening.