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In this paper, we present a Small Energy Masking (SEM) algorithm, which masks inputs having values below a certain threshold. More specifically, a time-frequency bin is masked if the filterbank energy in this bin is less than a certain energy threshold. A uniform distribution is employed to randomly generate the ratio of this energy threshold to the peak filterbank energy of each utterance in decibels. The unmasked feature elements are scaled so that the total sum of the feature values remain the same through this masking procedure.


The speech chain mechanism integrates automatic speech recognition (ASR) and text-to-speech synthesis (TTS) modules into a single cycle during training. In our previous work, we applied a speech chain mechanism as a semi-supervised learning. It provides the ability for ASR and TTS to assist each other when they receive unpaired data and let them infer the missing pair and optimize the model with reconstruction loss.


We propose a novel adversarial speaker adaptation (ASA) scheme, in which adversarial learning is applied to regularize the distribution of deep hidden features in a speaker-dependent (SD) deep neural network (DNN) acoustic model to be close to that of a fixed speaker-independent (SI) DNN acoustic model during adaptation. An additional discriminator network is introduced to distinguish the deep features generated by the SD model from those produced by the SI model.


The teacher-student (T/S) learning has been shown to be effective for a variety of problems such as domain adaptation and model compression. One shortcoming of the T/S learning is that a teacher model, not always perfect, sporadically produces wrong guidance in form of posterior probabilities that misleads the student model towards a suboptimal performance.


The use of spatial information with multiple microphones can improve far-field automatic speech recognition (ASR) accuracy. However, conventional microphone array techniques degrade speech enhancement performance when there is an array geometry mismatch between design and test conditions. Moreover, such speech enhancement techniques do not always yield ASR accuracy improvement due to the difference between speech enhancement and ASR optimization objectives.


Conventional far-field automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems typically employ microphone array techniques for speech enhancement in order to improve robustness against noise or reverberation. However, such speech enhancement techniques do not always yield ASR accuracy improvement because the optimization criterion for speech enhancement is not directly relevant to the ASR objective. In this work, we develop new acoustic modeling techniques that optimize spatial filtering and long short-term memory (LSTM) layers from multi-channel (MC) input based on an ASR criterion directly.